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Resources and Acknowledgements


Special thanks to Professor Ted DeLaney ('85) and Alumnus Gary Poliakoff ('73) whose insights on campus life and events in 1970 and the years immediately before and after were invaluable. 


Anderson, David L. The Vietnam War. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

This short work provides a succinct summary of the events and decision of the Vietnam War. It provides a helpful background to the events that were the subject of the protests in the mid to late 1960s and the specific strategic and information decisions that prompted the events of May 1970. 


Connery, Christopher L. “Marches Through the Institutions: University Activism in the Sixties and Present.” Representations, Vol. 116, No. 1 (Fall 2011): 88-101.

This essay grounds analysis of modern student movements in historical analysis of student protest in the 1960s and 1970. The historical analysis and useful timeline of protest evolution in 1970 are illuminating and clarifying.


Foster, Julian, and Durward Long. Protest! Student Activism in America. New York: Morrow, 1969.

This source is a collection of essays on students protest movements varying from psychological and strategic to analytical. Several essays, including those on the role of faculty and the reaction of trustee, student motivation, and a history of student protest in the 1960s provide relevant insight to this exhibit and would be enlightening further reading.


Horowitz, Helen Lefkowitz. “The 1960s and the Transformation of Campus Cultures.” History of Education Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Spring, 1986):1-38.

This source provides a more in depth look at the cultural and protest movement of the 1960’s particularly in the context of college and university campuses. It looks at the way the movements changed the culture of student life and the university as a whole during that period and how universities and student life, and role in society evolved over the course of the 1960s.


Levy, David W. The Debate Over Vietnam. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

This book provides a multifaceted look at the perspectives on the Vietnam War. It delves into both the resistance to the war and the national security, international policy, Cold War strategy, and other reasons for continued involvement in the war. It is also valuable as it analyses both the content and character of the debate over Vietnam at the time and the debate over how Vietnam is remembered.


Peterson, Richard E., and John A. Bilorusky. May 1970: the campus aftermath of Cambodia and Kent State. Berkeley, CA: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1971.

This book provides a specific and in depth look at the events of May 1970 at campuses around the country and can provide context to what occurred at Washington and Lee. It is a particular look at the extraordinary time period of May of 1970 in particular in the college consciousness where the reaction was the most seen and felt.


Rudy, Willis. The Campus and a Nation in Crisis: From the American Revolution to Vietnam. Madison NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996.

This source provides a history of the scene and role of college campus at moments of crisis in American history. The chapter on Vietnam follows the history of student activism and engagement witht the Vietnam war from beginning to end. 


Pickett, Robert M. Student Political Involvement in the 1970s. Edited by J. Peter Segall. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1979.

This source contains a collection of essays that look at different aspects of student political involvement in the 1970s. The book contrasts the types of involvement in the 1960s and 1970s and is useful in surveying the aftermath of student protest culture in the 1960s. It also analyzes the 1960s (and 1970) student political activism as an introduction and background. 


Turner, Jeffrey A. Sitting in and Speaking Out: Student Movements in the American South, 1960-1970. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 2010.

This book provides excellent context on the particular character of student movement in the south in the decade of the 1960s. As Washington and Lee is a southern institution it can be useful to place into context the protests and events as separate from the way that protest culture developed in the Northeast or California. This source also provides another good general look at the growth and evolution of student movements in the 1960s.


Warren, Mame. Come Cheer for Washington and Lee: The University at 250 Years. Lexington, Va.: Washington and Lee University, 1998.

This source provides a chronicle of the history of Washington and Lee University in its first 250 years through oral and documentary history among other methods. This record provides insight into the character of the University and involvement in national events over time and throughout its history.



Resources and Acknowledgements