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The American Century

Resources and Further Reading

Ashbolt, Anthony. "From Haight-Ashbury to Soulful Socialism: Culture and Politics in the Movement." Australia and New Zealand American Studies Association 1.3 (1982): 28-38. JSTOR. Web. 17 Dec. 2014.

  • Anthony Ashboldt discusses in this article the process of the politics of the Summer of Love’s counterculture movement and how it rose out of the beliefs of writers such as Alan Ginsberg that the demonstrations by the counterculture must have a certain element of demonstration to get the attention of the mainstream and how this style was pushed to the limits by the Diggers and Yippies, who made everyday life a spectacle.


Ashbolt, Anthony. "'Go Ask Alice': Remembering the Summer of Love Forty Years On." Australasian Journal of American Studies 26.2 (2007): 35-47. JSTOR. Web. 4 Dec. 2014.

  • This journal article describes the beginning of the Summer of Love and its origins in hopefulness and walks the reader through the rise of the drug culture that eventually engulfs and overwhelms the movement. Ashboldt then describes how the peace and happiness disappears while the Haight-Ashbury is abandoned and left destroyed.

Davis, Fred, and Laura Munoz. "Heads and Freaks: Patterns and Meanings of Drug Use Among Hippies." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 9.2 (1968): 156-64. JSTOR. Web. 17 Dec. 2014.

  • Davis and Munoz expound upon the difference between the hippies who were rampant LSD users (“heads”) and those who frequently shot speed (“freaks”). These two subsections of hippies had very different philosophies, as heads were interested in mental expansion, while freaks were drawn to lives of excess and craziness. These different lifestyles created tension between the two vastly different types of hippies, as their drug of choice tended to be an indicator of how different their philosophies and lifestyles were, even though they were both anti-establishment.


Godfrey, Brian J. Neighborhoods in Transition: The Making of San Francisco's Ethnic and Nonconformist Communities. Berkeley: U of California, 1988. Print.

  • In this book, Brian Godfrey explores the origins of the transition of the Haight-Ashbury after its destruction by the Summer of Love. The area remained nonconformist because of its reputation and those who stayed behind, but it has not truly risen to the prominence that it possessed for the one summer in 1967.

Howard, Jan, and Phillip Borges. "Needle Sharing in the Haight: Some Social and Psychological Functions." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 11.3 (1970): 220-30. JSTOR. Web. 17 Dec. 2014.

  • Needle sharing by drug users in the Haight-Ashbury district was rampant and spread diseases such as hepatitis to many of its inhabitants. Howard and Borges interviewed “shooters” of drugs through needles to find out the underlying reasons why it is a common practice. They found that it contributed to the communal aspect of the drug use of the time, and carries with it strong sexual connotations. Needling sharing, they found, was either a “conscious or unconscious act of self-destruction.” This is another example of how drug use contributed to the downfall of the Summer of Love.


Nowlis, Helen H. "Student Drug Use." The American Journal of Nursing 68.9 (1968): 1701-710. Web. 17 Dec. 2014.

  • In this essay by Helen Nowlis, she delves into the reason for drug use of children in 1968. She explains that the educators of the time were trying to regulate the symptoms of drug use instead of delving into the real problems that prompt students to use drugs. She states that there needs to be a drastic increase in research into the effects of drugs as well as in the education about drugs.


Sankot, Margaret, and David E. Smith. "Drug Problems in the Haight-Ashbury." The American Journal of Nursing 68.8 (1968): 1686-1689. JSTOR. Web. 16 Dec. 2014.

  • Sankot and Smith discuss the health issues that arise out of the Haight-Ashbury district in the summer of 1967 due to the rampant use of drugs. Clinics were incredibly busy throughout the summer treating diseases and injuries that were the results of drug use. The lifestyle of the counterculture resulted in rampant transmission of sexual diseases, as well as diseases that are passed through close-quarters living and malnutrition. 

Selvin, Joel. Summer of Love: The Inside Story of LSD, Rock & Roll, Free Love, and High Times in the Wild West. New York: Dutton, 1994. Print.

  • This book by Joel Selvin delves into the lifestyle of the West Coast, and specifically San Francisco in the late 1960s and early 1970s. He interviews artists and other leaders in the counterculture movement to tell the story of the Summer of Love and all of its facets, including drugs, Rock & Roll, and the lifestyle in the Haight-Ashbury.


Zimmerman, Nadya. "Consuming Nature: The Grateful Dead's Performance of an Anti-Commercial Counterculture." American Music 24.2 (2006): 194. JSTOR. Web. 17 Dec. 2014.

  • Zimmerman writes in this essay about the Grateful Dead and their unwillingness to become part of the mainstream, while still serving the purpose of being a commercial aspect of the counterculture. The bands of the counterculture represented its members in a way, but were also on the main stage for all of America. She discusses the hypocrisy of the music business and how it was not true counterculture.

Zimmerman, Nadya. Counterculture Kaleidoscope: Musical and Cultural Perspectives on Late Sixties San Francisco. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan, 2008. Print.

  • Nadya Zimmerman looks back at the 1960s counterculture in this book and reevaluates the hippie “movement” by looking at its music, artwork, and more. She explains that the counterculture really was not really interested in any sort of social change specifically, but rather simply embraced everything that was not the mainstream. The counterculture lacked any coherent leadership, so while it is considered a time of rebellion and opposition to the mainstream, Zimmerman claims that there was no true opposition at all.
Resources and Further Reading